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@ The lunar calendar and the solar calendar: 2

Because the primary star of our planet system is the 'sun', and because the earth has only one satellite named the 'moon', I think it natural that the 'solar calendar' based on the motion of sun or the 'lunar calendar' based on the motion of the moon have been made, developed respectively and correlated with each other, however I also think that the thing may not be so simple.

Neither I am an expert in a 'calendar' nor I have studied about a 'calendar' specifically in depth, so I may be admonished by persons who have earnestly been studying about a 'calendar'. However, I would like to slightly write about why so I thought straight or what to be I guessed. Because, it is a complete mystery why a 'matter of a calendar' has had a further deeper relationship with culture and civilization of the whole human beings than a glance of it.


In the primitive hunters & gatherers period, it seems easier to make a 'calendar' in accordance with the 'lunar movement' in which the moon clearly changes its shape everyday, e.g. a 'new moon', 'crescent' and 'full moon', rather than with the 'sun' which slightly changes the locations of 'sunrise' and 'sunset', doesn't it?

In Japan, in many parts of East Asia alike, only a few privileged classes such as 'Shogun' and 'Daimyo' could possess a 'clock', the 'lunar calendar' based on the 'lunar movement' had easily been accepted and used habitually by anybody until the modern age, it is natural, isn't it?
However, in the ancient Egypt where agriculture developed rapidly along the Nile River, it became crucial issues to predict seasonal cycles, which changed according to the 'solar movement' and the periodical floods of Nile River, and accordingly prepare the timings of sowing and harvesting, hence the 'solar calendar', which accurately predicted the 'solar movement', might been developed.
The fact that the primary god in the ancient Egypt was the 'Sun God "Ra"' was closely connected the above facts, I think.

In 'Buddhism' as well, come into existence in the ancient India where the agricultural civilization began developing, in its developing process, as universal existence beyond Buddha or as a kind of universal god, belief in 'Solar God' spread. The above fact tells the deep relationship between agriculture and the 'solar calendar', doesn't it?

From such a perspective I can be satisfied of the historical fact that 'Islam', born in the Arabia Peninsula where agriculture has little been developed and nomadism as well as trade have supported life, has kept up the pure 'lunar calendar = Hegira Calendar'. For the Arabs in the Arabian Peninsula who live most of their life under intense sunlight, night time, which is further easier to live than daytime, has been their primary stage of activities, hence it has been only natural to keep moving in the desert watching at the 'movements of moon and stars'.

As in Japan and East Asia where people had long been accustomed to the 'lunar' calendar, a variety of social events, such as religious ones, had been set up based on the 'lunar calendar', it became necessary to merge the traditional 'lunar calendar' into the 'solar calendar' which the western countries have been using, even though it might have been originated in the ancient Egypt, in accordance with the development of the modern industrialization. They could not help but make the compromised 'lunar solar calendar', I guess.

Diverting the subject slightly, it is also very interesting that the Meiji
Government unified the fiscal year, the education year and the timing of enlistment with the aim at practicing the conscription thoroughly. Talking about such subjects, it is rather difficult for me to stop my description, hence I finish talking up to this point for now.

As for the sequel to the previous TV drama, I think it better to nicely talk organizing it as a whole. So, I will write 'Death with dignity' as an extra next time. I may fail to meet expectations, but please excuse me.

The attached is called 'The Book of Hours' which shows the canons of life as a good Christian. It was also a kind of practical book which described how to pray by a calendar or a schedule.

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