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Assumption 3: Evolution

'A crow firstly scatters nuts with hard hulls on a road, secondly waits for chances of the nuts being cracked by a car running and then cleverly enjoys the nuts,' 'Because they can not dig potatoes themselves, several crows, without any intention to kill it, attack a monkey who dug potatoes and the like in a field, when losing itself in a defense and beginning using both hands the monkey drops the potatoes, the next moment one crow takes it away and other crows immediately stop their attack as if nothing has happened,' 'Talking of night-blindness, a urban crow homing in Ginza and the like easily and freely acts even in the night' and furthermore 'A crow is nothing serious, but a parrot is far sharper.' Cleverness of birds, represented by a crow (probably because a crow is close to us) is often taken up in Japanese television as well, seriously in one time and humorously in another time.

In the journal Nature Neuroscience Reviews published recently an international group of avian experts who have long been studying on cleverness of birds theoretically as well as demonstratively issued the cutting-edge interesting results of their studies.
The fact recognized by all the avian experts who issued the study was that birds are very intelligent.


As the Japanese prove goes, 'After three steps birds forgets everything' or as the English prove goes, 'An ostrich sticking its head into the sand' it means that an ostrich found by a lion in the desert sticks its head into the sand and try to imagine that it is not eaten by the lion in spite that it is actually eaten by the lion. As such, until now, birds have always been considered as a representative of fool or not-so-clever animals, not so much as the first.

However, according to the study results issued over a variety of fields from behavioral science to anatomy, the astonishing fact unbelievable all at once was revealed that birds had become intelligent by evolving not the neocortex but the cluster. From our child age until now of course, we were and are teased about our foolishness, "Your brain has a few creases, doesn't it?" and we can think of some reason for vaguely assuming ourselves to be so. However, it says that birds have evolved their brain in an utterly different way, say, from ours!

The myth 'It is obvious that the more creases on a brain the cleverer' has been made up by arbitrarily judging that the mechanism of evolving mammals' brains can be applied to all animals, because from its beginning until today the object of study on a brain has been limited to mammals such as human beings, conversely speaking the study on a brain objecting animals other than mammals has been very difficult.

One of the common senses, famous and everybody knows, 'A human brain consists of three kinds of brain. The one in the middle is the most primitive cluster which is a brain of the same level as reptile one such as crocodiles controlling appetite and sexual desire. The one outside of the cluster is the old brain which is a brain of not-so-clever mammals such as horses controlling motor nerves. The one covering the most outside is the neocortex which is that brain characteristic to primates controlling thought and memory. Hence, by checking the development degree of the neocortex, i.e. the density of creases on the outside of a brain, the intelligence degree of the animal can instantly be distinguished.' The theory, doubted by nobody and thought absolutely universal, has been completed and spread out all over the world, this is history.

In the deeper bottom there lies human insolence, 'As humans are an animal that masters the supreme wisdom, the cleverness of an animal can sharply be judged by investigating the brain creases of all animals on a foot, while human on the top, and disposing animals according to the result.'

Birds having few of the neocortex or the creases have been set up as the first of a 'fool,' why not?

A 'spine' is one of the similar examples, it is said that animals have evolved out of a non-vertebrate into a vertebrate, if so, insects such as ants or bees have no vertebrate inside their body, make their outer body hard instead and have developed themselves making their inside a cavity, have they regenerated?
A 'beehive' looking like mastering the essence of geometry, 'ant's society' acting excellently like one organization as a whole, are these the result achieved after the regeneration?

Plants should have no brain, however they try to keep their whole balance by reaching out their branches in the contrary direction if their one-side branches are broken by wind, or cherry trees change direction of their branches upward by making a u-turn if their branches nearly touch river water. Without a brain, we can not say whether they are clever or fool, can we?

We now can see the foolishness of scaling the development of all animals' brains dependent upon the characteristics of our own brain.

'The myth about the evolution of brains' may be a conspicuous example.

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